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Friday, May 16, 2014
Tuesday, June 25, 2013
1. What are three primary uses of symbolic logic in formal logic?
=> - to express propositions
- to express the relationships between propositions, and
- to describe how new propositions can be inferred from other propositions that are assumed to be true.
2. What are the two parts of a compound term?
=> Two parts of a compound term are: a functor, which is the function symbol that names the relation, and an ordered list of parameters, which together represent an element of the relation.
3. What are the two modes in which a proposition can be stated?
=> Propositions can be stated in two modes: one in which the proposition is defined to be true, and one in which the truth of the proposition is something that is to be determined. In other words, propositions can be stated to be facts or queries.
5. What are antecedents? Consequents?
=> Antecedents are the right side of clausal form propositions, whereas Consequents are the left side of clausal form propositions, because it is the consequence of the truth of the antecedent.
2. What does a lambda expression specify?
=> The predicate function is often given as a lambda expression, which in ML is defined exactly like a function, except with the fn reserved word, instead of fun, and of course the lambda expression is nameless.
5. Explain why QUOTE is needed for a parameter that is a data list.
=> To avoid evaluating a parameter, it is first given as a parameter to the primitive function QUOTE, which simply returns it without change.
6. What is a simple list?
=> A list which membership of a given atom in a given list that does not include sublists.
7. What does the abbreviation REPL stand for?
=>REPL stand for read-evaluate-print loop.
11. What are the two forms of DEFINE?
=> The simplest form of DEFINE is one used to bind a name to the value of an expression. This form is (DEFINE symbol expression) The general form of such a DEFINE is (DEFINE (function_name parameters) (expression)
6. What is exception propagation in Ada?
=> Exception propagation allows an exception raised in one program unit to be handled in some other unit in its dynamic or static ancestry. This allows a single exception handler to be used for any number of different program units. This reuse can result in significant savings in development cost, program size, and program complexity.
9. What is the scope of exception handlers in Ada?
=> Exception handlers can be included in blocks or in the bodies of subprograms, packages, or tasks.
10. What are the four exceptions defined in the Standard package of Ada?
=> There are four exceptions that are defined in the default package, Standard:
11. Are they any predefined exceptions in Ada?
=> Yes, they are.
12. What is the use of Suppress pragma in Ada?
=> The suppress pragma is used to disable certain run-time checks that are parts of the built-in exceptions in Ada.
14. What is the name of all C++ exception handlers?
=> Try clause.
30. In which version were assertions added to Java?
=> Assertions were added to Java in version 1.4.
31. What is the use of the assert statement?
=> The assert statement is used for defensive programming. A program may be written with many assert statements, which ensure that the program’s computation is on track to produce correct results.
32. What is event-driven programming?
=> Event-driven programming is a programming where parts of the program are executed at completely unpredictable times, often triggered by user interactions with the executing program.
1. What are the three possible levels of concurrency in programs?
=> - Instruction level (executing two or more machine instructions simultaneously)
- Statement level (executing two or more high-level language statements simultaneously)
- Unit level (executing two or more subprogram units simultaneously)
7. What is the difference between physical and logical concurrency?
=> Physical concurrency is several program units from the same program that literally execute simultaneously. Logical concurrency is multiple processors providing actual concurrency, when in fact the actual execution of programs is taking place in interleaved fashion on a single processor.
8. What is the work of a scheduler?
=> Scheduler manages the sharing of processors among the tasks.
12. What is a heavyweight task? What is a lightweight task?
=> Heavyweight task executes in its own address space. Lightweight task all run in the same address space.